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1 year ago

Fig xA Local equivalence ratio flow velocity level lines and

Fig. 15. Local equivalence ratio, flow velocity level lines and gas temperature profiles along Ezatiostat half height of channel with cavities (2.5 mm ? y ? 4.0 mm) for different longitudinal distance of the quartz combustor at ? = 0.5: (a) local equivalence ratio profiles; (b) flow velocity level lines; (c) gas temperature profiles.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
4. Conclusions
AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51276073) and the Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, China (Grant No. FSKLCCA1503).
Nickel carbide; Ni nanoparticles; Carbon nanofibers; Catalytic chemical vapor deposition; Hydrogenation
1. Introduction
As one of important carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have attracted increasing attention because of their unique physicochemical properties including high mechanical strength, good electrical conductivity, unique surface properties, high resistance to acid/basic media and good accessibility of the active phase, which make them suitable as heterogeneous catalyst supports [1], [2], [3], [4] and [5]. As catalyst supports, CNFs especially can induce an electronic perturbation to metal crystallites in liquid phase reaction, which greatly modifies the catalytic performance [6]. Undoubtedly, efficient immobilization of guest components through surface modification of CNFs is essential for enhancing the interactions between supports and catalytically active species and thus achieving excellent catalytic performance.

1 year ago

Fig illustrates the concentration of ozone

Fig. 12 illustrates the concentration of Compound 56 over the time period of experiments. Ozone concentration is very low at a voltage level of 17 kVPP, regardless of the applied repetition rates, which implies no ozone production by NTP at these levels. When the applied voltage approaches 17 kVPP, ozone concentration increases significantly for all repetition rates. The ozone concentration at 17 kVPP is almost constant over the period of study for 2.5 and 5 kHz. However, it increases slightly at 7.5 kHz and more significantly at 10 kHz. For 19 kVPP, ozone concentration increases at 2.5, 5 and 7.5 kHz with different gradients over the period of study. On the other hand, in the same period of time, ozone concentration has been decreased continuously at 19 kVPP and 10 kHz. This trend is in contrast with the PM concentrating trend obtained from Fig. 11 at the same operating points. Thus, decreasing the ozone concentration, a lesser amount of PM can be removed by the DBD plasma reactor at this state. The same trade-off can be observed between ozone and PM at 21 kVPP for repetition rates of 7.5 and 10 kHz as well. Furthermore, as can be observed in Fig. 10, CO2 concentration at 21 kVPP and 10 kHz will be constant and even increase to some extent 'Compound at the end of the time period of the experiment. This can be due to the reduction of ozone and also PM oxidation at this state. Therefore, ozone is found to be a key parameter for PM removal from diesel exhaust gas, which should be considered in all plasma emission treatment applications.

1 year ago

As reported by Lee et al for gas

Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a well-known thermodynamic hydrate promoter, can be added to the system in order to significantly reduce the equilibrium pressure for gas hydrate formation at a specified temperature [3], [7], [15], [39], [43], [44], [45] and [46]. However, THF has several drawbacks for its actual usage in the process, because it is highly volatile and toxic [35] and [47]. THF can be entrained and mixed with gas mixtures retrieved from the gas hydrate phase after dissociation, indicating that further processes for purification of the gas phase, and for recovery of THF, might be needed.

1 year ago

Since WWTPs can remove IBP from waters with

Since WWTPs can remove IBP from waters with inadequate efficiency, new research efforts are currently being made to find novel and efficient treatments to be integrated within the WWTP schemes. A first line of activities includes the transformation of IBP into harmless compounds through photocatalysis [9], Chemical Atazanavir [10], Fenton processes [7] and [11], ozonation [12], sonochemical degradation [13] and cavitation [14]. All these applications have been put forward only recently and, even if the results are promising, there is still some uncertainty at the genesis of degradation compounds and by-products, which should be further investigated. In order to overcome this drawback and to work out an effective depuration technology, a second line of investigation refers to the application of adsorption processes, mainly conducted on either natural materials [15] or activated carbons [16], [17], [18] and [19].
Adsorption has been widely used for water, groundwater or wastewater treatment, because endothermic combines good efficiencies with a reliable and robust process configuration [8] and [20]. It is a very versatile process that can be used for organic compounds and heavy metal capture thanks to a wide spectrum of adsorption targets [21], [22] and [23] as well as for single or multiple contaminations [20] and [24]. The wide application of the adsorption process is also due to the possibility of using different kinds of adsorbents, including natural and waste materials either raw or activated [15], [16], [21] and [23].

1 year ago

The objectives of this study

The objectives of this study are (1) to compare different reduction reagents used as quenchers for total chlorine, (2) to optimize the quenching condition for ineffective chlorine determination using 'Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin' NaAsO2, (3) to examine the formation of ineffective chlorine during chlorination of Suwanne River humic Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin and in finished waters from DWTPs, and (4) to investigate the sterilization efficacy of ineffective chlorine by comparing with other residual chlorine species.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Chemicals
All reagents used were at least of analytical grade. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 4–4.99%), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, ?99.5%), DPD sulfate (?99.0%), potassium iodide (KI, ?99.0%), potassium phosphate monobasic (KH2PO4, ?99.0%) and sodium phosphate dibasic (Na2HPO4, ?99.0%) were all purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (USA). Suwannee River humic acid (standard II) was purchased from International Humic Substances Society (IHSS, USA). Other chemicals including sodium sulfite (Na2SO3), sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3), sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3), sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) and ascorbic acid were obtained from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd. (China) without further purification. All solutions were prepared using ultrapure water produced from a Milli-Q water purification system (Millipore, USA) with total chlorine content under the method detection limit (MDL).

1 year ago

3-Deazaneplanocin A Quantitative analysis of microbial cluster size Fifty microliter

2.4. Quantitative analysis of microbial cluster size
Fifty microliter mixed sludge medium were collected from each reactor at 0, 3, 9, 12, and 24 h after inoculation, respectively, and were then analyzed. We employed 3-Deazaneplanocin A optical microscope system (Olympus BX41, Japan) to analyze microbial clusters sizes via image acquisition, and ten slides of each sample were recorded for size analysis. Microbial cluster size was represented by its projected area on the slide [19] and [20].
2.5. Extraction and analysis of EPS
2.6. Surface charge
The surface charge of microbial clusters was determined using colloid titration modified from Mikkelsen [24]. Polybrene and polyvinyl sulfate potassium salt (PVSK) were used as positive and negative colloidal reagents, respectively. First, 5.0 mL of 0.001 N polybrene was added to 100.0 mL diluted sample (containing 1.0 mL mixed sludge). The excess polybrene was back titrated with 0.0005 N PVSK to a community simplification colourimetric endpoint indicated by toluidine blue. Equal volumes of polybrene in centrifuged supernatant without microbial clusters were used as blanks.

1 year ago

Additional analyses in the removal of the EPS by

Acetone is a polar solvent with an electronegative carbonyl group. This carbonyl group disrupts hydrogen bonds in GW788388 and causes protein denaturation. Therefore, when acetone was applied to the aerobic granules, it reacted with cellular proteins and the EPS. As a result, the EPS proteins were denatured and removed. However, acetone was only able to disrupt the tertiary bonds of the protein; the primary bonds of the protein remained intact (Simpson and Beynon, 2009). This could be a likely reason for the incomplete removal of the EPS.
3.2.4. Sodium chloride
3.3. EPS removal – PHA dissolving step
3.4. PHA recovery
Fig. 3(a) shows the amounts of recovered PHA from aerobic granules using three different volumes of sodium hypochlorite. The highest PHA recovery yield was 89% of the cell dry weight (CDW) and was observed when using 12.5 mL of NaOCl. As complete removal of EPS was observed for NaOCl method, guanine is postulated that all PHA has been extracted out from aerobic granules by using 12.5 mL of NaOCl. Based on this PHA recovery yield, it can be inferred that aerobic granules possesses high capacity in accumulating PHA. It matches the highest PHA yield in mixed culture that has been reported to date (Johnson et al., 2009).

1 year ago

Comparison of the traditional parameter estimation methods and the

Comparison of ICG001 traditional parameter estimation methods and the three optimized methods for Gamma at Site 3 and 'ICG001' Site 4.HeightParameterSite 3Site 4MMMLEPSODEACOMMMLEPSODEACO10 mk5.04854.05194.67694.15144.13415.65594.3454.68044.58374.518θθ1.29581.61451.47921.6851.6981.46061.90121.90932.00232.0292R20.87220.89350.91490.92370.92380.70990.7530.82460.83310.833RMSE0.01610.01470.01320.01250.01250.01970.01820.01530.01510.015130 mk5.04854.05194.4814.62944.53375.65594.3454.9795.21695.1331θθ1.58781.97841.87751.82211.85061.78982.32972.28442.12612.1356R20.87630.87580.89540.89930.89940.71420.72260.77760.79660.7956RMSE0.01420.01420.0130.0130.0130.01770.01740.01560.01540.015440 mk5.04854.05194.19994.42114.68915.65594.3454.92645.06294.6517θθ1.67462.08652.17322.03091.93441.88762.45712.40352.32612.521R20.89390.90010.9230.92670.92410.71750.73410.80110.80890.8061RMSE0.01180.01150.1010.00990.01010.01620.01580.01360.01360.013760 mk5.04854.05194.46164.3314.36955.65594.3454.9094.97655.0938θθ1.80512.2492.13452.25472.23832.03462.64852.59622.55532.5098R20.88330.89440.92130.9260.9260.71980.74010.81060.81640.816RMSE0.01130.01080.00930.00910.00910.01470.01420.01210.01210.012180 mk5.04854.05194.42314.20154.0835.65594.3454.71584.81714.8343θθ1.90372.3722.35492.47772.55622.14592.79322.87652.79442.7967R20.8680.88770.92640.9280.92770.71760.74750.82220.82630.8262RMSE0.0110.01020.00820.00810.00820.01360.01290.01080.01080.0108100 mk5.04854.05194.3634.38634.3815.65594.3454.67685.06685.1022θθ1.9842.4722.41272.4492.43842.23632.9112.95492.75032.7466R20.87870.88730.91750.92080.92060.72290.73860.80280.81260.8124RMSE0.01060.01020.00870.00860.00860.01350.01310.01140.01130.0113Full-size tableTable mycelium optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV

1 year ago

The reason for the lack of success

This lesson can be transferred to the gauging scale applied later on. A wide scale allows a high Trichostatin A but may not be workable. Therefore, it will be important to carefully determine the measurement scale for this investigation.
Woywode summarizes the difficulties of obtaining the qualitative information from key informants which may bias the evaluation of the SHS success in the following ways: key informant bias, endogeneity, simultaneity, unobserved heterogeneity, regression-to-the-mean-problem, and survival bias [27].
Below are some SHS related examples of these difficulties, taken from the literature:
2.1.1. Key informant bias
Key informants may fail to provide information on past dependencies compared to their situation today [28]. SHS Users may fail to remember living conditions before the implementation of their SHS. Therefore, the evaluation of the SHS services may be biased.
2.1.2. Endogeneity
Independent variables are influenced by variables which have not readily been accessible [29]. At first sight, the price of SHS components seems to be an independent variable. But the price may be influenced by difficulties and hidden costs of importation. Information on axillary buds influences is often difficult to access.

1 year ago

Up to nbsp deg C there is an

In all three graphs, the pressure drop trend with time at different temperatures shows a similar pattern. At higher temperatures, the carbonation reaction seems to complete more quickly and achieve the ultimate pressure drop faster. The results show a significant difference in the ultimate pressure drops reached at the end of the carbonation at different temperatures. However, unlike the W/S ratio tests, in this case the pressure reduction does not provide a good indication to measure the amount of CO2 sequestered into the fly ash material, since the pressure is dependent on the temperature. Therefore, for a meaningful comparison, the pressure reduction data were converted to the Apatinib number of CO2 sequestered in each case, by applying ideal gas law. For this purpose, the behavior of CO2 gas was assumed to be similar to an ideal gas under test conditions (Montes-Hernandez et al., 2009). Equations (5) and (6) show the ideal gas law and its rearrangement to calculate the mole numbers.equation(5)PV=nRTPV=nRTequation(6)n=PV/RTn=PV/RTwhere P is the pressure drop due to carbonation and V is the rector volume occupied by CO2 gas. Since part of the reactor is occupied by fly ash and water, the remaining space should be considered as the gas-filled volume. To estimate this, the volume occupied by fly ash and water was deducted from the total inner volume of the reactor cell. T is the absolute temperature and R refers to the universal gas constant of 0.08314472 L bar/K mol. Fig. 9 compares the CO2 sequestration in three Latrobe Valley fly ashes under different reaction temperatures.